How can be assured that The Qur’an is The Word Of God?
1. Physical incapacity
The prophet was physically incapable to write the Qur’an. History has him as an unlettered man who could not write anything. How could he write a book like the Qur’an?
Allah says 29:48
And you did not recite before it any scripture, nor did you inscribe one with your right hand. Then (i.e., otherwise) the falsifiers would have had (cause for) doubt
The prophet was morally constrained to tell the truth about the origin of the Qur’an. He was noted to be so honest and trustwhorthy that even his enemies called him al-Amin (the trustworthy). Moreover, he suffered persecution, refused offers to compromise and maintained his message for period of twenty three years. Historians of religion have to conclude that he was sincere.
The Qur’an speaks to the prophet, commands him, and even criticizes him. Such contents do not point to the prophet as the self-conscious author. On the other hand, the author declares himself to be the creator of the heavens and the earth.
For Example Allah Says 66:1
O Prophet! Why do you forbid (for yourself) that which God has allowed to you, seeking to please your wives? And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Prophet (pbuh) abstained from eating honey, due to the behavior of some of his wives. God then admonished him because he forbade upon himself what God deemed lawful.
Allah Says 80:1-4
The Prophet frowned and turned away. Because there came to him the blind man. And how can you know that he might become pure from sins? Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him?
Abdullah Umm Maktoom, who was blind, came to the Prophet (pbuh) while he was preaching to one or some of the Quraish leaders, and the Prophet (pbuh) frowned and turned away and God admonished him on account of that.
Therefore, were the Prophet (pbuh) an imposter, these verses would not be found in the Qur’an.
How can it be that a rationale person can condemn himself and mention his own shortcomings in a book that he gives to his followers?
Also in the Quran, There is a chapter named Surah Maryam (Chapter Mary) named in honor of Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. In fact, in one of the verses in the Quran says 3: 42
Behold! The angels said “0 mary! Allah has chosen you and purified you, chosen you above the women of all nations.
Such an honor is not to be found given to Mary in any of The Christian Bible. If Muhammad was the author of the Quran, then he would not have failed to include in it with Maryam (Mary), his own mother Aminah, his dear wife Khadijah, or his beloved daughter Fatima. But NO! This can never be. Why? Because The Quran is not his handiwork!
The prophet was incapable of writing the Qur’an. The Qur’an details items of history which were not known to the prophet or his contemporaries. And independent studies confirm that the Qur’an was true in what it said.
For example, the biblical version of Pharaoh’s story states that he was drowned in the pursuit of Prophet Moses (Exodus 14:28-29). Unknown to the world till only of late, the Holy Qur’an made a definite prediction about the preservation of the body of that same Pharaoh of Moses’ time, Quran says 10:90-92:
This day We shall save you in your body so that you may be a sign for those that come after you (92)
The body was discovered in the tomb of Amenhotep II in 1898.
The Qur’an challenges skeptics to find errors in it, which, if found, would disprove its divine claim. But no one has yet been able to point to a real error in it.
Allah Says 4:82
Then do they not reflect upon the Qu’ran? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within much contradiction
Allah Says 2:2
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah
A unique feature of the Qur’an is that no one is able to produce a book that would match its beauty, eloquence and wisdom. The Qur’an itself challenges humankind to produce even a chapter (Surah) like it. But no one has been able to do it.
Allah Says 2:23-25
And if you are in doubt about what We have sent down [i.e., the Qur’an] upon Our Servant [i.e., Prophet Muhammad], then produce a surah the like thereof and call upon your witnesses [i.e., supporters] other than Allah, if you should be truthful.But if you do not and you will never be able to, then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.And give good tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds that they will have garden [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow. Whenever they are provided with a provision of fruit therefrom, they will say, “This is what we were provided with before.” And it is given to them in likeness. And they will have therein purified spouses, and they will abide with therein eternally
Allah Says 17:88
Say, if mankind and the Jinn gathered together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even though they should help one another
The Qur’an speaks prophetically, detailing what the future holds. Then the future unfolds exactly as foretold. Who could author such a book?
One example of the events foretold in the Quran is the victory of the Romans over the Persians. Within three to nine years after the Romans were defeated by the Persians. God has said in the Quran, 30:2-4
The Romans have been defeated in the nearest land (to the Arabian Peninsula), and they, after their defeat, will be victorious within bedd’ (three to nine) years
Let us see what history tells us about these wars. A book entitled History of the Byzantine State says that the Roman army was badly defeated at Antioch in 613, and as a result, the Persians swiftly pushed forward on all fronts. At that time, it was hard to imagine that the Romans would defeat the Persians, but the Quran foretold that the Romans would be victorious within three to nine years. In 622, nine years after the Romans’ defeat, the two forces (Romans and Persians) met on Armenian soil, and the result was the decisive victory of the Romans over the Persians, for the first time after the Romans’ defeat in 613.The prophecy was fulfilled just as God has said in the Quran.
Another prophecy occurs in Surah in of the Qur’an 111:1-5
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he. His wealth will not avail him or that which he gained.He will [enter to] burn in a Fire of [blazing] flame And his wife [as well] the carrier of firewood. Around her neck is a rope of [twisted] fiber
That Surah states that a certain man and his wife will perish as unbelievers. This was uttered at a time when no one but God could say who will or will not become believers later on. Many of the most severe opponents in the early days became devoted followers in later days. But not this couple. They tried everything to oppose, ridicule, and disprove the Qur’an. One would expect that they would also pretend to become believers just to throw doubt on the accuracy of the Qur’an. But they did not apply this obvious strategy. What prevented them, if not the power of God and the truth of His word?
There are also many other verses in the Quran and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh that mention future events which later came to pass.
The Quran, which was revealed fourteen centuries ago, mentioned facts only recently discovered or proven by scientists. This proves without doubt that the Quran must be the literal word of God, revealed by Him to the Prophet Muhammad, and that the Quran was not authored by Muhammad or by any other human being. This also proves that Muhammad is truly a prophet sent by God. It is beyond reason that anyone fourteen hundred years ago would have known these facts discovered or proven only recently with advanced equipment and sophisticated scientific methods. Some examples follow:
a) The Quran on Human Embryonic Development
In the Holy Quran, God speaks about the stages of man’s embryonic development, 23:12-14
We created man from an extract of clay. Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed substance)…
Literally, the Arabic word alaqah has three meanings: (1) leech, (2) suspended thing, and (3) blood clot.
In comparing a leech to an embryo in the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two. Also, the embryo at this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech, which feeds on the blood of others.
The second meaning of the word alaqah is “suspended thing”. The suspension of the embryo, during the alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother.
The third meaning of the word alaqah is “blood clot.” We find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqah stage is similar to that of a blood clot. This is due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage. Also during this stage, the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the end of the third week. Thus, the embryo at this stage is like a clot of blood.
So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.
The next stage mentioned in the verse is the mudghah stage. The Arabic word mudghah means “chewed substance.” If one were to take a piece of gum and chew it in his or her mouth and then compare it with an embryo at the mudghah stage, we would conclude that the embryo at the mudghah stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance. This is because of the somites at the back of the embryo that “somewhat resemble teethmarks in a chewed substance.”
How could Muhammad have possibly known all this 1400 years ago, when scientists have only recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful microscopes which did not exist at that time? Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were the first scientists to observe human sperm cells (spermatozoa) using an improved microscope in 1677 (more than 1000 years after Muhammad ). They mistakenly thought that the sperm cell contained a miniature preformed human being that grew when it was deposited in the female genital tract.
Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore is one of the world’s most prominent scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the book entitled The Developing Human, which has been translated into 8 languages. This book is a scientific reference work and was chosen by a special committee in the United States as the best book authored by one person. Dr. Keith Moore is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. There, he was Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy. In 1984, he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists. He has directed many international associations, such as the Canadian and American Association of Anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences.
In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Professor Moore said: “It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Quran about human development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God.”
Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: “Does this mean that you believe that the Quran is the word of God?” He replied: “I find no difficulty in accepting this.”
During one conference, Professor Moore stated :
“Because the staging of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah (what Muhammad said, did, or approved of). The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge. The intensive studies of the Quran and hadeeth (reliably transmitted reports by the Prophet Muhammad’s companions of what he said, did, or approved of) in the last four years have revealed a system for classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the seventh century A.D. Although Aristotle, the founder of the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages from his studies of hen’s eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any details about these stages. As far as it is known from the history of embryology, little was known about the staging and classification of human embryos until the twentieth century. For this reason, the descriptions of the human embryo in the Quran cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the seventh century. The only reasonable conclusion is: these descriptions were revealed to Muhammad from God. He could not have known such details because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training”
b) The Quran on Mountains
A book entitled Earth is a basic reference textbook in many universities around the world. One of its two authors is Professor Emeritus Frank Press. He was the Science Advisor to former US President Jimmy Carter, and for 12 years was the President of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. His book says that mountains have underlying roots. These roots are deeply embedded in the ground, thus, mountains have a shape like a peg.
This is how the Quran has described mountains. God has said in the Quran, 78:6-7
Have We not made the earth as a bed, and the mountains as pegs?
Modern earth sciences have proven that mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground and that these roots can reach several times their elevations above the surface of the ground. So the most suitable word to describe mountains on the basis of this information is the word ‘peg,’ since most of a properly set peg is hidden under the surface of the ground. The history of science tells us that the theory of mountains having deep roots was introduced only in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Mountains also play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth. They hinder the shaking of the earth. God has said in the Quran, 16:15
And He has set firm mountains in the earth so that it would not shake with you…
Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains work as stabilizers for the earth. This knowledge about the role of mountains as stabilizers for the earth has just begun to be understood in the framework of plate tectonics since the late 1960’s.
Could anyone during the time of the Prophet Muhammad have known of the true shape of mountains? Could anyone imagine that the solid massive mountain which he sees before him actually extends deep into the earth and has a root, as scientists assert? A large number of books of geology, when discussing mountains, only describe that part which is above the surface of the earth. This is because these books were not written by specialists in geology. However, modern geology has confirmed the truth of the Quranic verses.
c) The Quran on Deep Seas and Internal Waves
God has said in the Quran, 24:40
Or (the unbelievers’ state) is like the darkness in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds. Darknesses, one above another. If a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it
This verse mentions the darkness found in deep seas and oceans, where if a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it. The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters and below. At this depth, there is almost no light. Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all. Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters without the aid of submarines or special equipment. Human beings cannot survive unaided in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters.
Scientists have recently discovered this darkness by means of special equipment and submarines that have enabled them to dive into the depths of the oceans. We can also understand from the following sentences in the previous verse, “…in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds….”, that the deep waters of seas and oceans are covered by waves, and above these waves are other waves. It is clear that the second set of waves are the surface waves that we see, because the verse mentions that above the second waves there are clouds. But what about the first waves? Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities”. The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break, just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location
d) The Quran on the Origin of the Universe
The science of modern cosmology, observational and theoretical, clearly indicates that, at one point in time, the whole universe was nothing but a cloud of ‘smoke’ (i.e. an opaque highly dense and hot gaseous composition). This is one of the undisputed principles of standard modern cosmology. Scientists now can observe new stars forming out of the remnants of that ‘smoke’. The illuminating stars we see at night were, just as was the whole universe, in that ‘smoke’ material. God has said in the Quran, 41:11
Then He turned to the heaven when it was smoke…
Because the earth and the heavens above (the sun, the moon, stars, planets, galaxies, etc.) have been formed from this same ‘smoke,’ we conclude that the earth and the heavens were one connected entity. Then out of this homogeneous ‘smoke,’ they formed and separated from each other. God has said in the Quran, 21:30
Have not those who disbelieved known that the heavens and the earth were one connected entity, then We separated them?
Dr. Alfred Kroner is one of the world’s renowned geologists. He is Professor of Geology and the Chairman of the Department of Geology at the Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. He said: “Thinking where Muhammad came from . . . I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years, with very complicated and advanced technological methods, that this is the case.”
Also he said: “Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics fourteen hundred years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out from his own mind, for instance, that the earth and the heavens had the same origin.”
The scientific evidences of the Quran clearly prove its Divine Origin. No human could have produced a book, fourteen hundred years ago, that would contain profound scientific facts, to be discovered by humankind centuries later. The Quran, however, is not a book of Science but a book of Signs. These signs invite Man to realize the purpose of his existence on earth, and to live in harmony with Nature. The Quran is truly a message from Allah, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It contains the same message of the Oneness of God, that was preached by all prophets, right from Adam, Moses, Jesus to Muhammad (peace be upon them).
These eight reasons (Physical incapacity, Sincerity, Psychology, History, Consistency, Inimitability, Prophecy, and Science) together form a strong cumulative case in favor of the Qur’an’s divine origin. Hence Muslims can be confident that the belief of Islam, which is based on the Qur’an, is true.
by : A Issa alshamy (islamic-message.net)